==============================  CFJ 1418  ==============================

    If, after the end of an Election's Nominating Period, the Vote
    Collector fails to publish a list of Candidates as soon as possible,
    then the Election has no Winner - even if there was exactly one
    Candidate at the end of the Nominating Period.

========================================================================

Caller:                                 Murphy
Barred:                                 Steve
Barred:                                 Taral

Judge:                                  t
Judgement:                              TRUE

========================================================================

History:

Called by Murphy:                       26 Oct 2002 03:40:21 GMT
Assigned to t:                          05 Nov 2002 00:53:39 GMT
Judged TRUE by t:                       13 Nov 2002 00:31:27 GMT

========================================================================

Caller's Arguments:

Here is an excerpt from Rule 1445, with labels added in the left margin:

(a)   * End of Nominations: As soon as possible after the end of the
        Nominating Period, the Vote Collector shall publish a list of
        all Candidates.  If e does not do this as soon as possible,
        then the Election has no winner.

(b)   If there are no Candidates, then the Election has no winner.

(c)   If there is exactly one Candidate, then e is the winner of that
      Election.

(d)   If there are two or more Candidates, then a Referendum begins
      when the Vote Collector publishes the list of Candidates.  This
      is a standard Referendum, with the following exceptions:

This CFJ is intended to resolve a possible conflict between (a) and
(c).  I believe that (b) through (d) do not come into effect until
the Vote Collector publishes the list required in (a).

========================================================================

Judge t's Arguments:

The court finds this CFJ TRUE, but notes that the situation is more
nefarious than it appears.

Rule 1445 states that the Vote Collector of an Election shall publish a
list of all candidates as soon as possible after the end of the Nominating
Period and that if e fails to do that, the Election has no winner.
However, the rule also states that if an Election has only one candidate,
e wins the Election. The CFJ seeks to find which of these two outcomes
take precedence.

The end of the rule contains an effectiveness clause: "An Election takes
effect when the Vote Collector correctly announces the identity of its
winner." It is reasonable to conclude that this clause defines the only
way in which the procedure defined by the rule may have an effect that is
recognized by other rules. Therefore, in order for a Candidate to win an
election, eir identity must be announced the Vote Collector while e is
recognized the winner of the election by Rule 1445.

Rule 1445 defines the possible winner of an Election in the following
ways (listed in the order they appear in the Rule):

    I. If the Vote Collector is deregistered before announcing the winner,
       the Election has no winner.
   II. If the Vote Collector fails to publish the list of Candidates,
       the Election has no winner.
  III. If there are no Candidates, the Election has no winner.
   IV. If there is exactly one Candidate, e is the winner.
    V. If there are several Candidates, a Referendum may either find one
       of them a winner or result in the Election having no winner.

A natural interpretation of the rule is that the selection of a Candidate
as the winner of an Election is superceded by a result of no winner. Thus,
the election ceases to have a winner when any such condition applies. In
the case of this CFJ, there is a seven-day window period which the Vote
Collector may publish the list of Candidates and announce a winner. After
that time e may only announce that election has ended with no winner (but
e is still required to publish the list of Candidates).

However, the rule is poorly worded. The rule only takes an effect when the
Vote Collector announces the identity of the winner but there is no
requirement for em to do so in a set time (the rule does make em
responsible for announcing the results). It is the court's opinion that
this announcement is separate from any other announcement and publication
required by that rule. Thus, even if the Vote Collector correctly
publishes the fact that there was only one Candidate, e may decline to
announce em the winner of the Election. Even worse, if the Vote Collector
is deregistered before announcing the winner, it is not possible for em to
announce that the Election has no winner (see Rule 1755 "No Non-Player
Responsibilities"). In such a case, the Election may continue
indefinitely. This seems like a serious bug in the Ruleset.

========================================================================

Judge t's Evidence:

Rule 1445/16 (Power=1)
Defaults for Elections

      When an Election is required and the procedure is not defined
      elsewhere, the following Standard Election Procedure shall be
      used.  Details specified herein are defaults which may be
      modified by other Rules for specific situations.

      * Vote Collector: The Collector is responsible for taking
        nominations, collecting and tallying the Votes, and announcing
        the results.  The Vote Collector is the Speaker at the time
        the Election begins.

      * Disappearance of Vote Collector: If the Vote Collector
        deregisters or is deregistered before announcing the winner of
        the Election, then the Election has no winner.

      * Nominator: A Nominator is an entity permitted to Nominate a
        Candidate in an Election.  Only Active Players are Nominators.
        Activity is measured at the time a Nomination is sent.

      * Prospective: A Prospective is an entity permitted to be
        Nominated as a Candidate in an Election.  Only Active Players
        are Prospectives.  Activity is measured at the time a
        Nomination is sent.

      * Nominating: A Nominator Nominates a Prospective by sending a
        message to the Vote Collector during the Nominating Period,
        indicating the Election and the Prospective.  If the
        Prospective is not explicitly identified, then it is the same
        as the Nominator.

      * Candidates: A Candidate for an Election is a Prospective who
        has been Nominated in that Election.

      * Retraction: A Nominator may retract eir Nomination by sending
        a message to the Vote Collector during the Nominating Period,
        indicating the Election and the Prospective.  If the
        Prospective is not explicitly identified, then it is the same
        as the Nominator.

      * Declination: A Prospective may decline eir Nomination by
        sending a message to the Vote Collector during the Nominating
        Period, indicating the Election.  Upon doing so, e may not be
        re-Nominated in that Election by anyone but emself.

      * Mode of Nominations: There are three Modes of Nominations:
        Selfish, Selfless, or Open.  The Vote Collector may specify a
        Mode of Nominations when e announces the start of the
        Election; if e does not, then the Mode is Selfish.

        (a) In a Selfish Election, a Nominator may Nominate only
            emself.
        (b) In a Selfless Election, a Nominator may not Nominate
            emself.
        (c) In an Open Election, a Nominator may Nominate any
            Prospective.

      * Start of Nominations: The Nominating Period begins at the time
        of the first correct and legal announcement that an Election
        has begun, as defined in other Rules.  Such an announcement
        must include the identity of the Vote Collector.

      * Duration of Nominations: The Nominating Period lasts for one
        Week.  All Nominations received by the Vote Collector outside
        of the Nominating Period have no effect.

      * Secrecy:  Nominations need not be kept secret.

      * End of Nominations: As soon as possible after the end of the
        Nominating Period, the Vote Collector shall publish a list of
        all Candidates.  If e does not do this as soon as possible,
        then the Election has no winner.

      If there are no Candidates, then the Election has no winner.

      If there is exactly one Candidate, then e is the winner of that
      Election.

      If there are two or more Candidates, then a Referendum begins
      when the Vote Collector publishes the list of Candidates.  This
      is a standard Referendum, with the following exceptions:

      * Vote Collector: The Vote Collector for the Referendum is the
        same as the Vote Collector for the Election.

      * Vote Values: A Vote is the name of exactly one Candidate for
        the given Election.  Words which are effectively synonymous
        with these are also permissible.

      * Failure of Referendum: If the Referendum fails for any reason
        (e.g. Quorum is not achieved), then the Election has no
        winner.

      * Adoption: The winner of the Election is the Candidate for whom
        the most Votes were cast.  If two or more Candidates are tied
        for most Votes, then the Speaker shall choose one of those
        Candidates, who becomes the winner when the Speaker announces
        eir choice.  The Speaker shall announce eir choice as soon as
        possible after the Vote Collector announces the results of
        Voting.

      * Effectiveness: An Election takes effect when the Vote
        Collector correctly announces the identity of its winner.  The
        effect of an Election is defined by other Rules.

========================================================================