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>From: Andre Engels <csg419@wing.rug.nl>
Subject: OFF: CFJ 805: Judgement
To: nomic-official@teleport.com
Date: Thu, 17 Aug 95 10:33:52 METDST
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Status: RO

######################################################################

			ASSIGNMENT CFJ 805

Statement: "The Rules should be interpreted so that the Contest named
            person became a Player as of the posting of this message
            (the CFJ text, including the Contest announcement and
            person's request to be a Player) to the Public Forum."

======================================================================

Judge:		Ian

Judgement:	FALSE

Eligible:	Andre, Chuck, Dave Bowen, favor, Garth, Ian, Kelly,
		KoJen, Michael, Steve, SugarWater, Vanyel, Vlad,
		Xanadu, Zefram

Not Eligible:	
Caller:		Swann
Barred:		none
On Hold:	Bryan, elJefe, JonRock, Pascal

Effects of this CFJ (*: new in this report)
* Ian receives 5 Points for speedy Judgement

======================================================================

History:
  Called by Swann, Wed, 9 Aug 1995 19:31 -0400
  Assigned to Ian, Tue, 15 Aug 1995 13:39 +0200
  Judged FALSE by Ian, Wed, 16 Aug 1995 08:24 -0700

======================================================================

Arguments of the Caller:

Please consider the following Contest (this is also the announcement of
same as required by 1446/2):

------------------Contest Announcement and Regulations-----------------

Swann announces the following Contest.
(Please note that the Name of this Nomic Entity is the single word,
 "person.")

Name: person

Regulations:

1) The person's Contestmaster is Swann.

2) Only the person's Contestmaster may change the person's regulations.

3) The entry fee to this Contest is 3 Marks.

4) Only the person may be a Contestant.

5) The Contestmaster acts as the Executor of this Contest, as well as
   all Contestants thereof.

6) The person, through this Regulation, requests to be Registered as
   a Player of Agora Nomic as specified in Rule 869/2.  The person
   wishes eir nickname to be "Myrmidon."  Registrar take note.
   [This Regulation self-deletes once the described action is
    performed]

7) The person, Myrmidon, through this Regulation, informs the Banker
   that e transfers eir 3 starting Marks (via Rule 1080/1) to the
   Contest Named person, and therefore becomes a Contestant in that
   Contest.  (This transfer is still made, even if the Treasuries
   being transferred to and from are the same.)
   [This Regulation self-deletes once the described action is
    performed]

8) The person, Myrmidon, through this Regulation, informs the Assessor
   that e votes exactly as Swann does on each Proposal currently up for
   vote.  (In any case where Swann used an EV to vote two different
   ways, Myrmidon abstains.)
   [This Regulation self-deletes once the described action is
    performed]

9) The person, Myrmidon, through this Regulation, informs the
   Scorekeepor that e transfers all starting Points to Swann's
   Emergency Point Holding Contest.
   [This Regulation self-deletes once the described action is
    performed]

10) The person, Myrmidon, through this Regulation, informs the
    CotC that, if Myrmidon is not listed as eligible to Judge the
    CFJ which contains the Contest named person then Myrmidon
    issues a COE over the omission.
    [This Regulation self-deletes once the described action is
     performed]

11) This contest dissolves when Myrmidon is deregistered.

12) Every act by Myrmidon requires a Regulation to describe it.
    If the act requires the Contestmaster to notify someone, the
    posting of the new Regulation in the Public Forum will be
    that notification.

----------End of Contest Announcement and Regulations------------

Admittedly, this is a bizarre turn of events.  However I wish to
point out Rule 869/2's language on the subject of who/what can
be Registered as a Player:

     "A Player is any person who is registered as a Player.
      Registration occurs when a person who is not a Player sends a
      message to the Public Forum requesting to be Registered. . ."

Admittedly the "person" in 869/2 is not intended to include "person"
the Contest.   (It couldn't, since it predates the Contest Rule.)
But if we allow, in this one instance, *intent* to color the Judgement
of this CFJ, we will be overthrowing a long enshrined tradition that
the letter of the Rule *is* the Rule.  Not only that, the language
in 869/2 is deliberately expansive. It says "any person" in fact.  And
the above Contest is certainly a "person who is not a Player."
(At least until Reg 6 is invoked.)

To go even further, prior to my Contest, there was no legal definition
of a "person," enshrined in the Ruleset.  A person was *not* a Nomic
Entity defined in the Ruleset.  Rule 869/2 could, therefore,
be said to allow (before the Contest) non-human "persons" to be Registered.  
Aliens from Alpha Centauri, Intelligent Otters, and
Artificial Intelligence Devices, all of these could have, before
the Contest, become Players.  (As long as they had an e-mail account :)
This expansive person-hood has been extended to include one composite
player, and may have, as far as we can confirm, included non-terrestrial
intelligence's either now, or at sometime in the past.

It is my contention that the letter of 869/2 clearly allows the
Registration of my Contest.

In answer to a possible counter argument, 869/2 does continue:

      "No person may be registered as a Player more than once
       concurrently."

The establishment of Myrmidon the Player certainly violates the
spirit of this clause, insofar that Myrmidon is my complete,
mindless and willing slave.  However, I doubt that any interpretation
of the Rules could establish myself and the Contest as the same
"person," which is the requirement to violate this clause.

In fact, I can go further and state that it is now impossible to have
more than one person in the game as long as this Contest exists.

Note my statement above:

    "Prior to my Contest, there was no legal definition of a "person"
     enshrined in the Ruleset.  A person was *not* a Nomic Entity
     defined in the Ruleset."

Now, however, by virtue of the Contest Rule, there is now a Nomic
Entity defined as a person, the above Contest.  Now according to 1011/0:

   "No two Nomic Entities (including Players) shall have the same
    name or nickname."

This implies that now there can be only one "person" as far as Agora
is concerned.  In which case, after the creation of my Contest, all
references to a person (at least in MI<2 Rules) must therefore now
refer to my Contest-- or, at the very least, they must include the Contest 
"person" as part of a larger English definition of "person."
(i.e. person retains its definition in the outside world, but in internal
 Agora matters it refers to my Contest.  This would allow people to
 continue to register, but it has some side effects on Patent Titles and
 Degrees.)

I wish to thank Zefram's Nomic Potato Contest for giving me the idea
for this scam

======================================================================

Arguments of Judge:

This CFJ rests squarely on the definition of "person" in Rule 869/2:
"A Player is any person who is registered as a Player."

Definition of "person" (The American Heritage Dictionary of the English
Language, 1981):

     1.  A living human being, especially as distinguished from an
         animal or a thing.
     
     2.  The composite of characteristics that make up an individual
         personality.
     
     3.  An individual of some specified character.
     
     4.  The living body of a human being.
     
     5.  Guise; character.
     
     6.  Physique and general appearance.
     
     7.  A human being or organization with legal rights and duties.
     
     8.  The separate individualities of the Father, Son, and Holy
         Spirit, as distinguished from the essence of the Godhead that
         unites them.

These definitions are not equal: the lower the definitions number, the
more accepted as "usual" it is.  One can see that the first definition
is far more often used than the last.

There are two reasons that I will not accept defintion 7 for Rule
869/2.  First, since they are in order of common acceptance, if we
accept #7, we must also accept #s 1-6, and #6, at least, is not
acceptable - we can't have any guise of any person accepted as a Player
- the idea is for each person to be a Player.  If we accept #6, each
person could adopt several guises and become several Players, which is
not what we want.

Secondly, #7 says "with legal rights and duties."  However, nowhere is
the Rules is a Contest given the right to be a "person" (#1).  Since it
doesn't have the right to be a person (#1), it can't be a Player.

For another take on this, just because the Contest is named "person" 
does not make it "a person". It is still a Contest.

======================================================================


Evidence:
----------------------------------------

Rule 869/2 (Mutable, MI=1)
Registered Players

      A Player is any person who is registered as a Player.
      Registration occurs when a person who is not a Player sends a
      message to the Public Forum requesting to be Registered. No
      person may be registered as a Player more than once
      concurrently.

      If a Player has to be identified for whatever purpose, then the
      use of that Player's Agora nickname is preferred, but not
      obligatory: *any* unambiguous way of identification is allowed.

History:
...
Amended(1) by Proposal 1313, Nov. 12 1994
Amended(2) by Proposal 1437, Feb. 21 1995

----------------------------------------

Rule 1446/2 (Mutable, MI=1)
Contests

      A contest is a subgame of Agora Nomic, having its own Name,
      Entry Fee, Regulations, Contestmaster, and Contest Fund.

      It is created when a Player posts to the Public Forum an
      announcement of the contest, including the Name and Regulations.
      Participants in the subgame are called Contestants of that
      contest.  The player making the post becomes the Contestmaster.

      The Contestmaster for a given Contest is a Player who has
      responsibility for administering the subgame.  He reports all
      currency transfers taking place under the Regulations, is the
      Executor of the Contest Fund, and maintains the Regulations.

      The Contest Fund is a Treasury, as provided for in other Rules.
      The owner of this Treasury is the Contest, and the Executor of
      this Treasury is, at all times, the Contestmaster of the
      Contest.

      The Regulations specify the operation of the Contest.  All
      Contestants, and the Contestmaster, are bound by the Regulations
      except where these conflict with the Rules.  They may also
      specify:
        1. how a Contestmaster is replaced. However, no person may
           become Contestmaster without eir consent;
        2. how the Currencies in the Contest Fund shall be spent, so
           long as this does not conflict with the Rules;
        3. the amount of the Entry Fee for the Contest, in the form of
           units one or more Currency;
        4. additional restrictions on Players to become Contestants, 
           and conditions under which Contestants cease to be
           Contestants;
        5. how the Regulations may be changed.  If they do not so 
           specify, the Regulations may not be changed. Whenever the 
           Regulations are changed, the Contestmaster must post the 
           new Regulations to the Public Forum, and no such change is
           effective until it is so posted;
        and
        6. how the Contest may be dissolved.

      A Player becomes a Contestant by notifying the Contestmaster and
      paying the prescribed Entry Fee to the Contest Fund.  A
      Contestant may quit a Contest at any time by so notifying the
      Contestmaster, or by so posting to the Public Forum.  A
      Contestmaster may resign at any time by posting a message to
      that effect to the Public Forum, at which time e ceases to be
      Contestmaster.

      A contest is dissolved when there is no Contestmaster and no
      provision for replacing em, or upon unanimous agreement of the
      Contestmaster and all Contestants, or as otherwise provided in
      the rules, or in the Regulations.  When this happens the Contest
      Fund is distributed as provided in the Regulations; if no
      provision is made the Fund is divided equally between the
      Contestants. 

      If the Contest Regulations require a transfer to be made, but
      the Contest Fund has insufficient currencies to permit that
      transfer to be made, sufficient currencies to cover the transfer
      shall be involuntarily transferred from the Contestmaster's
      Treasury to the Contest Fund.  The Contestmaster shall report
      this transfer to the appropriate Recordkeepors.

      No Blots shall be assigned by this Rule.

History:
Created by Proposal 1509, Mar. 24 1995
Amended(1) by Proposal 1574, Apr. 28 1995
Amended(2) by Proposal 1601, Jun. 19 1995

----------------------------------------

Rule 1011/0 (Semimutable, MI=2)
Game Entities May Not Be Arbitrarily Changed

      Any Entity which is created by the Nomic Rules, and which exists
      only within the context of Agora Nomic (such as Points, Votes,
      Currencies and any Official Records) may *not* be changed by any
      action other than those specified by the Rules.

      No two Nomic Entities (including Players) shall have the same
      name or nickname.
      (*Was: 450*)

History:
Created by Proposal 450, Sep. 10 1993
Amended by Proposal 1011, Sep. 5 1994
Mutated from MI=1 to MI=2 by Proposal 1593, Jun. 2 1995

----------------------------------------

Rule 1478/0 (Mutable, MI=1)
Executors

      The Rules may, for any given non-Player Nomic Entity, specify a
      Player, or the means to designate a Player, who shall act as the
      Executor of that Entity.  The Executor of a non-Player Nomic
      Entity shall have the legal authority to act on behalf of that
      Entity, as if e were that Entity.  The Rules may also specify
      constraints on how the Executor of an Entity may act.

      If a non-Player Nomic Entity has no Executor, it may not act
      except as specifically required of it by the Rules.

      The Executor of a Group is that Group's Vizier.  

      For the sake of completeness, a Player is eir own Executor.

History:
Created by Proposal 1601, Jun. 19 1995

----------------------------------------