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>From: Andre Engels <csg419@wing.rug.nl>
Subject: OFF: CFJ 816: Judgement
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Date: Fri, 27 Oct 95 10:58:11 MET
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======================================================================
			JUDGEMENT CFJ 816

   The Rules, generally, should be interpreted such that all Groups,
   Contests, and Contracts in existence just prior to the adoption of 
   Proposal 1760 ceased to exist upon the adoption of that Proposal.

======================================================================
Judge:		Chuck
Judgement:	FALSE

Eligible:	Andre, Chuck, Coco, Dave Bowen, favor, Kelly, Michael, 
		Morendil, Oerjan, SugarWater, Steve, Vanyel, Vlad, 
		wutold, Zefram

Not Eligible:	
Caller:		elJefe
Barred:		Swann, KoJen
On Hold:	Garth, JonRock

Effects:	Chuck gains 5 Points for speedy Judgement

======================================================================

History:
  Called by elJefe, 26 Oct 1995, 10:46 -0400
  Assigned to Chuck, 26 Oct 1995, as of this message
  Judged FALSE by Chuck, 27 Oct 1995, 22:04 CDT

======================================================================

Arguments:

Prior to the adoption of Proposal 1760, Groups, Contests, and Contracts 
existed by the virtue of their own empowering Rules (766, 1446, and 1455, 
respectively).  None of the existing entities was, in any way, an 
Organization (since such things only came into being with Proposal 1760).

Proposal 1760 amended Rules 766, 1446, and 1455 creating classes of 
Organizations known as Groups, Contests, and Contracts.  However, no 
part of Proposal 1760 in any way makes those entities which existed 
prior to its adoption become Organizations.  The only method by which 
an Organization can come into existence is that method specified in the 
new Rule 1533/0.  None of the Groups, Contests, or Contracts in existence 
prior to the adoption of Proposal 1760 comply with these requirements, 
and therefore are not Organizations.  Since the authorizing legislation
for the existence of these Entities no longer permits them to exist,
they all cease to exist at the time of the adoption of Proposal 1760.

Rule 1011 forbids the old Groups, etc., from becoming Organizations 
except as specified by the Rules; they can't just do this magically.
So either they cease to exist, or at the very least they cease to be 
be Groups/Contests/Contracts, because they lack status as Organizations, 
and thus lose their Treasuries, and any right to cast a Vote.

It is long-established Game Custom that when an Entity created by the 
Rules ceases to have authority to exist under the Rules, then it ceases
to exist.  (Recall the Office of the Sweepstakes Officer.)

Prior Judgements also support this view.  CFJ 803 held that Rule 1488 
(created by Proposal 1647) created a new entity ("The Nomic Potato") 
regardless of the fact that Zefram had created a Contest called "The 
Nomic Potato" during the Voting Period for the Proposal.

======================================================================

Reasons and Arguments Judge:

I question the value of presenting reasons and arguments, as
this Judgement is almost certain to be appealed, but I will
present them nonetheless.

Prior to the passage of Proposal 1760, Rules 766, 1446, and 1455
defined Groups, Contests, and Contracts, respectively.  After
the passage of Proposal 1760, Rules 766, 1446, and 1455
defined Groups, Contests, and Contracts, respectively.
The central question here is whether the Groups, Contests,
and Contracts after 1760 were continuous with those
before; or if there is no continuity, in which case
the Groups, Contests, and Contracts which existed
before 1760 ceased to exist with the adoption of 1760.

Let us first examine the general question: when an
Entity is redefined by an amendment, does the Entity
exist continuously, or is the Entity destroyed, and
a new Entity with the same name Created?  The Rules
provide no answer.  Game Custom?  Entities tend to be
considered continuous in most cases, but this is not always
the case.  In short, there is no general answer to this
question--it is a matter of magnitude of the redefinition
of the Entity.  Most redefinitions are insignificant enough
that there can be a continuity, but some are so major that
there can be no continuity.  It is correct, as some have
pointed out, that the fact that the name remains the same
does not automatically mean that the Entity is continuous.
However, it seems to me that there is a strong game
custom that if an Entity, being redefined, retains the
same name, then the Entity *is* continuous if a continuity
is at all possible.  After all, normally when an Entity
is redefined, we do not ask if it ceased to exist then
came into existence again; we naturally assume that it
did not.  So why is it questioned here?  Because it
seems as if the change to Groups, Contests, and Contracts
may have been so drastic so as to allow no continuity.  So
the question then becomes, can there be a continuity?

Let us first address the argument, which has been advanced,
that under the new Rules there can be only one each Group, Contest,
and Contract.  If correct, then I would agree that the nature
of Group(s), Contest(s), and Contract(s) has changed so radically
as to allow no continuity.

This argument rests on the first sentences of Rules 766, 1446,
and 1455.  The first sentence of Rule 766 reads, "Let there be a
Class of Organization known as a Group."  (The first sentences
of 1446 and 1455 are similar.)  Taken on its own, I *might*
agree that it implies there is only a single Group.  However,
the rest of the Rule *clearly* implies that there can be more
than one Group.  Thus, in that light, the natural interpretation
of that sentence is "Let there be a Class of Organization, the
members of which are known as Groups."  True, it could have been
worded more clearly, but even given this ambiguous wording, I
believe this is the proper interpretation.

The other argument advanced is that regarding the identity of
the "new" Groups as Organizations.  (In fact, it can be the only
argument advanced, as in all other respects "old" Groups are essentially
the same as "new" Groups.)  "Old" Groups were not Organizations.
"New" Groups are.  Thus, either the "old" Groups ceased to exist,
or the "old" Groups suddenly became Organizations.  Could
the "old" Groups suddenly become Organizations?

First, let us note that *if* "old" Groups suddenly became
Organizations, then Groups are continuous, as there is no
other obstacle to their continuity.  As I noted above,
given that the Entities share the same name, we must assume
they are continuous unless we can demonstrate otherwise.
Thus, to suggest that suddenly becoming Organizations prevents
any possible continuity is a circular argument at best, and
if we are to accept this argument, we must have some outside
reason why Groups cannot suddenly become Organizations.

Thus, we are presented with Rule 1011, which some allege prevents
this from taking place.  Does it?

Rule 1011/0 (Semimutable, MI=2)
Game Entities May Not Be Arbitrarily Changed

      Any Entity which is created by the Nomic Rules, and which exists
      only within the context of Agora Nomic (such as Points, Votes,
      Currencies and any Official Records) may *not* be changed by any
      action other than those specified by the Rules.

      No two Nomic Entities (including Players) shall have the same
      name or nickname.
      (*Was: 450*)

"...may *not* be changed by any action other than those specified
by the Rules."

Is the action of Groups suddenly becoming Organizations specified
by the Rules?  Yes!  It is specified by the new Rule 766, which
states that Groups are Organizations.  It does not *explicitly*
state that Groups become Organizations, but this must be the
case for Groups to exist; as I noted above, given that the
names are the same, we must assume a continuity if at *all*
possible within the Rules; that leads us to this conclusion, i.e.
that existing Groups do suddenly become Organizations upon the
adoption of 1760.

It has been suggested that the word "specified" necessarily means
"explicitly specified."  This argument is absurd; it can just
as well mean "implicitly specified."  There are numerous changes
which occur every day which are not explicitly specified; and
thus there is a strong Game Custom that 1011 does not mean
that changes must be *eplicitly* specified.  I will give just
one example: let's look at Rule 790, specifying the method of
filling vacant Offices:

Rule 790/0 (Mutable, MI=1)
Filling Vacant Offices

      If, for any reason, an Office is vacant, that fact shall be
      announced by the Electioneer.  The Electioneer shall be the
      Registrar; or in eir absence, the Speaker.  All Players willing
      to hold the Office shall notify the Electioneer of that fact
      within three days of eir announcement of the vacancy.  At the
      end of the three day period, the Electioneer shall randomly
      choose one player from those who indicated a willingness to hold
      the Office, and that Player shall become that Officer.  This
                      ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
      rule applies to Offices in general, and thus defers to Rules for
      specific Offices.
      (*Was: 689*)


Note it says, "that Player shall become that Officer."  It does
not explicitly say the Office is filled.  Naturally, it does *imply*
the Office is filled--and very clearly so--but it does not state
so explicitly.  Here is an example of an implicit change--the
change in the Office from a vacant state to a filled state--but
no one would suggest that the change does not take place because
it is not explicitly stated, even given Rule 1011.  Innumerable
implicit changes take place like this every day.  They
are usually so obviously *implicit* in the Rules that we do
not even consider to question them.  To interpret 1011 in the
manner suggested by some would be absurd, chaotic, and most
importantly, against Game Custom.

In conclusion, there can be a continuity between "old" Groups
and "new" Groups; since there can be a continuity, and the
Entities have the same name, we must conclude that there *is*
a continuity; thus, Groups suddenly became Organizations upon
the adoption of 1760, as implied by Rule 766.  (Similar
arguments apply to Contests and Contracts.)



======================================================================

Evidence:

[Proposal 1760]
[Rule 766/2]
[Rule 1446/4]
[Rule 1455/0]
[Rule 766/3]
[Rule 1446/5]
[Rule 1455/1]
[Rule 1533/0]
[Rule 1011/0]
[CFJ 803]

\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/

PROPOSAL 1760 (Swann) AI=1, protoed
Group, Contract and Contest Consolidation

Let the Following Rule be Created with the Title: "Organizations"
(it is placed in the Category "Organizations and Compacts" if such
Category exists.)

      Let there be a set of Nomic Entities known as Organizations.  Every 
      individual Organization has associated with it a body of text known as
      its Compact, a Player known as the Organization's Administrator, a set
      of Players who are within the Jurisdiction of the Organization's
      Compact, and a unique specific Name.

      In addition, any Organization which possesses Treasuries has a Player
      who is Executor of the Organization.  An Organization only possess
      Treasuries if the Rules governing that Orginization specify so.

{Comment: Orginizations are collective Entities, consisting of a Compact.
          (Regulations/Ordinances/Bylaws/Terms &c.)  Generically they have
          an Administrator (Ordinancekeepor/Contestmaster/High Wazoo &c.)
          a set of Associated Players (Members/Contestants/Parties) and a
          Name.  If it possesses one or more Treasuries, it also has an
          Executor (Vizier/Contestmaster/Moneylender &c.) but this Rule
          itself doesn't grant Treasuries to Orginizations.}


Let the Following Rule be Created with the Title: "Compacts: Statutes, and
Warranties" (it is placed in the Category "Organizations and Compacts" if such
Category exists.)

      The Compact of an Organization consists of either or both of the
      following elements:

         i) Statutes; defined as that collective text which is legally
            binding under the Rules, and must be obeyed by Players within
            the Compact's Jurisdiction as if it was a part of the Ruleset.

        ii) Warranties; defined as that collective text which requires
            Players within the Compact's Jurisdiction to either obey it or
            suffer penalties defined within the Rules or the Compact.

      A Compact may only possess those elements allowed it by the Rules
      defining its Class of Organization.  If these Rules do not specify,
      the Compact may only consist of Statutes.

{Comment: This is obviously drafted to segragate out the legal differences
          between the enforcement mechaanisim between Contracts and
          Compacts.  As Vanyel's pointes out, Warranties are strictly
          pragmatic, you act in violation of them, the only effect to the
          Game State is the punisment mandated by the Rules or the Compact.
          Such Warranty violations aren't illegal, or retractable.  Statutes
          are like the Ruleset, and violations (if they're possible, which
          Kelly will debate) are certianly Rule violations as well-- and
          thus are Platonic.  I think this is at least as clear, if not
          clearer, than the current distinctions (which are carried out
          under multiple Rules, possibbly diluting their interpretation.)}


Let the Following Rule be Created with the Title: "Compacts: Jurisdiction"
(it is placed in the Category "Organizations and Compacts" if such
Category exists.)

      The Jurisdiction of an Organization's Compact is a subset of the set
      of all Players. A Compact has no force to require, or oblige, anything
      of Players who are not within its Jurisdiction.  (This does not absolve
      any Players of duties required of them by the Rules.)

      Within its Jurisdiction, a Compact's ability to dictate Players'
      activity is limited to the extent permitted by the Rules.

      A Compact can only have Jurisdiction over Players permitted to it
      by the Rules governing its Class of Organization.

      No Compact may have effect prior to its Creation, nor may it have
      effect subsequent to its dissolution.

      This Rule takes precedence over any other Rule governing 
      Compacts.

{Comment: Essentially this sets the basic limits of Orginzational power
          thus the precidence clause.}


Let the Following Rule be Created with the Title: "Administrators and Their
Duties" (it is placed in the Category "Organizations and Compacts" if such
Category exists.)

      The Administrator of an Organization must keep an accurate copy
      of its Compact and an accurate list of the Players within the
      Compact's Jurisdiction.

      E must record any and all changes to the Compact, and must, As
      Soon As Possible after such changes, distribute an up-to-date copy
      of the Compact to every Player within the Compact's Jurisdiction.

      E must also notify the Notary whenever the Executor (if any) of eir
      Organization Changes.  When the Administrator of an Organization
      changes, the new Administrator must inform the Notary of this
      change.  These notifications must be made As Soon As Possible.

      The Administrator of an Organization must come from within the
      Jurisdiction of the Organization's Compact unless otherwise specified
      by the Rules governing its Class.

{Comment: The Administrator is the strict Recordkeepor of eir
          Orginization.  This language alters the duties of a Group's
          Vizier somewhat as far as reporting changes in leadership
          go.  This was doine in the interest of consistency.  It
          makes more sense for the Admistrator to report such Changes.}


Let the Following Rule be Created with the Title: "Organizations' Executors and
Their Duties" (it is placed in the Category "Organizations and Compacts" if such
Category exists.)

      The Executor of an Organization is the person legally responsible
      for reporting, to the appropriate Recordkeepors, any and all
      transfers out of the Organization's Treasury.  The Executor may
      only transfer funds as permitted by the Rules governing the Class
      of the Organization e is Executor of, and e may be further bound by
      the Compact of eir Organization.   The Executor of an Organization
      must come from within the Jurisdiction of the Organization's Compact
      unless otherwise specified by the Rules governing its Class.

{Comment: The Executor is strictly in charge of the Treasury.  Via the
          definiton of Executor elsewhere, e should govern all the
          Player-like actions of Orginizations, where the Administrator
          conducts the broad Recordkeeping duties.}


Let the Following Rule be Created with the Title: "Creation of Organizations, and
Their Compacts" (it is placed in the Category "Organizations and Compacts" if such
Category exists.)

      Organizations (and, simultaneously, their initial Compacts) are
      created in the following manner:

      A set of Players, known as the Foundors, sends a message to the 
      Notary containing the following information:

         i) The Class of the created Organization.
        ii) The Unique Name of the particular Organization being created.
       iii) The inital Compact for the proposed Orginization.
        iv) Any information required by Rules governing that specific
            Class of Organization.

      The Organization is created and is in force once the Notary
      receives the above information from all required Foundors.

      The set of required Foundors is specified within the Rules defining
      the particular Class of Organization, but they must be from within
      the Jurisdiction of the new Organization's Compact. Additional
      restrictions on the set of Foundors can be made by those Rules.

      This Rule defers when other Rules specifically claim precedence over
      its requirements. Otherwise, these requirements take precedence.


Let Rule 1474 be amended to read as follows:

      An Organization is permitted to be the Mintor of a Currency _only_ if
      that Organization possesses a Treasury, _and_ if the Rules defining
      that Organization's Class specifically permit it to become the Mintor
      of a Currency.

      Each Rule that permits an Organization of a specific Class to be a
      Mintor must define a unique generic name for every type of Currency
      associated with that Class of Organization.

      The name of any Currency associated with a specific Organization 
      shall be the Name of the Organization followed by the unique 
      generic name defined by the Class of that Organization.

      The Recordkeepor of any Organization's Currency is the Executor of 
      the associated Organization.  The MUQ of all such Currencies is 1.


{Comment: This allows multiple types of Currency, as long as they're defined
          explicitly in the Rules.}


Let the Following Rule be Created with the Title: "Compacts Can Require Some
Currency Transfers" (it is placed in the Category "Organizations and Compacts" if
such Category exists.)

      An Organization's Compact may only require Currency transfers that are
      made from the Treasuries it possesses (if any such exist) or from a Player
      within the Jurisdiction of its Compact.

      This Rule takes precedence over any Rule which would permit a 
      Compact to require a transfer prohibited by this Rule.

Rule 1514 and 1515 are hereby Repealed.

{Comment: Allows multiple treasuries.}


Let the Following Rule be Created with the Title: "Compact Defaults"
(it is placed in the Category "Organizations and Compacts" if
such Category exists.)

      The Compact of an Organization can specify any or all of the
      following.

        i) How the Compact, and/or the Name of its Organization, can be
           Changed. If this is not specified, it may only be changed by
           unanimous consent of Players within the Compact's Jurisdiction.
           Consent is shown by a Player by sending an identical copy of the
           change to the Notary.  The change takes effect when the last
           Player so consents.

           In all cases, when the Name of an Organization changes, the
           Administrator must inform the Notary of the new Name As Soon
           As Possible.

       ii) How the Organization can be dissolved.  If this is not 
           specified, the Organization cannot dissolve unless it is 
           required to do so by the Rules.
           
           As Soon As Possible after an Organization's dissolution, the
           Player who was the last Administrator of that Organization must
           inform the Notary of that Organization's dissolution 

      iii) How additional Players enter the Jurisdiction of the Compact.
           If this is not specified, the Compact cannot expand its
           Jurisdiction.

       iv) How individual Players leave the Jurisdiction of the Compact.
           If this is not specified, the Compact can only lose
           Jurisdiction over a Player when the Rules require it to do
           so.

           Whenever there is any change in a Compact's Jurisdiction, the
           Administrator of its Organization must inform the Notary of the
           change As Soon As Possible.

           These defaults defer to language applying to a specific
           Class of Organization.


Rule 1324 is hereby repealed.


{Comment:  I believe these default-type rules have some value, (so do the
           drafters of the original legislation, each of which contains such
           a default list) in that if someone passes a one line Rule: "There
           exists a Class of Organization known as [blah]" they actually
           give that anemic Organization something of a form.}

           NOTE: this will change the Vizier's responsibilities in the case
           of Groups.}


Let the Following Rule be Created with the Title: "Treasuries of Dissolving
Organizations" (it is placed in the Category "Organizations and Compacts" if
such Category exists.)

      If an Organization is to dissolve, and if a provision exists within
      its Compact for dividing its Treasuries (if any) upon dissolution, the 
      Treasuries are divided in accordance with this provision before its
      dissolution.  Otherwise, the Treasuries are divided as evenly as
      possible among all Players within the Compact's Jurisdiction before
      its dissolution.

      The Executor of the Organization notifies all appropriate    
      Recordkeepors of the above Transfers.  If no Executor exists, and 
      there is no provision in the Rules or the Compact for someone to 
      act as Executor, all Treasuries' contents go to the Bank. (Detected 
      by the relevant Recordkeepors.)

      This Rule takes precedence over other Rules demanding a different  
      distribution of such Treasuries' assets.

{Comment: This is a consolidation of the language in Groups and
          Contests.  Made timing explicit.  Possible multiple
          treasuries.}


Amend Rule 1397 to read as follows:

      An Organization ceases to exist when any of the following 
      conditions become true:

        i) Its Compact ceases to have Jurisdiction over any Players
           and no provision exists for the Jurisdiction to expand.
       ii) The continued existence of the Organization would result in 
           the absence of a Administrator (and/or the absence of an 
           Executor in the case of a Orginization with Treasuries) with no 
           provision for any Player to fulfill the role(s).
      iii) The Organization is required to dissolve in accordance with its 
           Compact or the Rules.

      At the moment an Organization dissolves, the following occurs, in 
      order.

        i) Any Currencies remaining in the Organization's Treasuries (if 
           such exist) are distributed as provided for by other Rules.  
       ii) All Players cease to be within the Jurisdiction of the
           Organization's Compact.
      iii) The Organization's Treasuries, Compact, and the Organization
           itself, cease to exist.
  
      Whenever a Public Organization dissolves, the Notary shall report 
      that event to the Public Forum As Soon As Possible after e is notified
      as required by other Rules.

      Other Rules may define additional causes of dissolution.


Amend 1501 to read as follows:

      An Organization is Public unless the Rules defining its Class
      permit (or require) it to be Private.

      If its Class permits Privacy, but does not require it, an Organization
      is Public unless its Compact claims Privacy.

      The Compact of a Public Organization must be provided by the 
      Administrator of that Organization to any Player on demand. If,
      between the time of the demand and the time the Administrator
      fulfills the demand, the Compact has changed, the Administrator
      must provide the Compact as it existed at the time of the demand,
      and must additionally document every change made to the Compact
      between the demand and its fulfillment.

Amend 1459 to read as follows:

      An Organization can only be Private if the Rules defining its Class
      permit (or require) it to be Private. 

      If its Class permits Privacy, but does not require it, an Organization
      is not Private unless its Compact claims Privacy.

      The Compact of a Private Organization are privileged, and may only 
      be divulged by Players within the Compact's Jurisdiction.  
      (This defers to the Compact where it forbids such disclosure.)

      The following are the only legal exceptions:

        i) Disclosure of any part of the Compact to a Player 
           within its Jurisdiction.
       ii) Disclosure of any part of the Compact to the current 
           Notary.
      iii) Disclosure of any part of the Compact to a Judge or
           Justice judging a CFJ, where the Caller of the CFJ is a Player 
           within the Compact's Jurisdiction, and the evidence 
           provided by the Caller of the CFJ contains text purported to 
           be part or all of the Compact.

      This Rule takes precedence over any Rule which would require any 
      Player to provide the Compact of a Private Organization upon
      request.


Let the Following Rule be Created with the Title: "Compacts as Evidence"
(it is placed in the Category "Organizations and Compacts" if
such Category exists.)

      If a Judge or Justice requires disclosure of part of any
      Organization's Compact to em for the purpose of Judging a CFJ, the
      Administrator of that Organization is required to provide a copy of
      that Compact to the Judge or Justice As Soon As Possible after the
      Judge's or Justice's request.

      If this involves a Compact from a Private Organization, the Judge or
      Justice receiving it is bound by the strictures governing the
      dissemination of the contents of that Compact, and is prohibited
      from attaching a copy of it to eir Judgement as evidence.
      
      This takes precedence over any Rule which would require a Judge or
      Justice to include the Compact of a Private Organization as part
      of the evidence justifying eir Ruling.

{Comment: I split one of the long Contract Rules in half (the 
          created Rule is the Judging half of the Confidential Contracts 
          Rule)  I stick, mostly, to a generalized version of the 
          original Rule's language.}


Amend Rule 1458 to read as follows:

      There shall exist an Officer called the Notary.  The Notary shall 
      generally be responsible for maintaining a Record of Organizations
      and the Players under the Jurisdiction of their Compacts.

      The Notary shall maintain an up-to-date list of the Names of all
      Organizations, and an up-to-date list of the Players under the
      Jurisdiction of the Compacts of those Organizations.

      E Shall also keep track of the Administrators of each
      Organization, and the Executors of those Organizations with
      Treasuries.

      The Notary's Salary shall be 5 Points per Nomic Week.

Rules 715 and 1516 are hereby Repealed


Amend Rule 717 to Read as follows:


      Not less than once each Nomic Week, the Notary must post a report 
      of all Public Organizations in the Public Forum.

      This report shall contain:
        i) The Name and Class of each Public Organization.
       ii) The Players within the Jurisdiction of each Public Organization's
           Compact.
      iii) The identity of the Administrator of each Public Organization.
       iv) The identity of the Executor of each Public Organization
           which has Treasuries.

{Comment: Generalized the Group report Rule to cover all Public
          Statutes, disposed of the redundant Statute-reporting
          language.  Allowed for possibility of multiple Treasuries.
          Changed Administrator of [Compact] to Administrator of
          the Organization.}


Amend the first paragraph of Rule 1500 to read as follows:

      When a CFJ alleging that a Statute or a Warranty (hereinafter the
      Target) should be interpreted in a certain way is Judged TRUE, the
      Judge may include with the Judgement an Injunction requiring the 
      Administrator of the Organization whose Compact contains the Target
      to annotate the Target with the Statement in the CFJ.

{Comment: Generalized the language to cover the new Statute/Warranty
          language, and also fixed it so individual Statutes can be
          interpreted and annotated, not just the entire Compact.}


Amend rule 1457 to read as follows:

      When any Player within the Jurisdiction of a Compact believes 
      the Compact to have been Violated by another Player, e shall 
      inform the Administrator of that Compact's Organization of that
      belief, along with the nature of the Violation, the Violated text of
      the Compact, and the identity of the Violating Player. The
      Administrator shall then, As Soon As Possible, distribute this
      information to all Players within the Jurisdiction of the Violated
      Compact.

      If, within seven days of this distribution, no Player within the
      Compact's Jurisdiction disputes the claim, the Administrator 
      shall declare the Compact Violated.  The Administrator is then 
      allowed to initiate any corrections and penalties allowed by the 
      Rules and eir Organization's Compact.

      If, however, any Player under the Compact's Jurisdiction 
      disputes the claim of Violation within seven days, then any Player 
      within the Compact's Jurisdiction may submit a Call for 
      Judgement, alleging that a specific Player has Violated the 
      Compact. Such a Call for Judgement cannot be made in any other 
      circumstance.

      All Players within the Compact's Jurisdiction are automatically
      ineligible to Judge such a CFJ.

      In the event that such a CFJ is found TRUE, the Compact has 
      been Violated and the Compact's Administrator shall perform the 
      same duties as when no Player contests the claim.  In the event 
      that such a CFJ is found FALSE, the Player which called the CFJ 
      shall lose 5 Marks to the Bank; this transfer shall be detected and 
      reported by the Administrator of the Compact's Organization, if the
      Organization does not possess a Treasury, by its Executor otherwise.


Let the Following Rule be Created with the Title: "Definition of Violation"
(it is placed in the Category "Definitions")

      Violation of a Compact means the failure to obey (insofar the Rules
      require) the text of a Compact by a Player within that Compact's
      Jurisdiction. Such a Violation is either Civil or Basic.

      Violations of a Statute are Basic Violations can also be Violations
      of the Rules empowering the Violated Statutes.

      Violations of a Warranty are Civil Violations are never, by
      themselves, Rule Violations.

      Any other Violation is Basic, unless the Rules define it otherwise.
     
{Comment: Since a Contract's Compact consists of Warranties, not
          Statutes, no one could now interpret a Contract violation as
          voided by these Rules.  Added the last sentence to keep from
          hijacking the term "violation" from Rules referring to Rules.}


========================================================================

The following is the new language specific to each defined Class of Organization.  Where the above rules now apply broadly to all Statutes, the following is the (only) Class-specific language left.

The obvious benefit is that an Organization can be defined with one or two Rules.

(Groups are spread into a lot of little Rules, but could be re-written into one or two were we proposing them after this reform.)

========================================================================

Contests.


Amend Rule 1446 to read as follows:

      Let there be a Class of Organization known as a Contest, also known as
      a subgame of Agora Nomic.

      A Contest's Compact is known as its Regulations, its Administrator is
      known as the Contestmaster, it has one Treasury known as the Contest
      Fund, and its Executor is the Contestmaster.

      Players, other than the Contestmaster, within the Regulation's
      Jurisdiction are known as its Contestants.  The Contestmaster is
      always within the Regulations' Jurisdiction.

      The Foundor of a Contest is its initial Contestmaster.  A 
      Contest is Public, and the Notary must publish the initial Contest 
      Name and Regulations in the Public Forum As Soon As Possible after 
      e receives them from the Contestmaster.

{Comment: In all deference to Kelly's complaint about changing the reporting
          procedures for Contests, IMHO, if an Officer must keep track of an
          entity, changes in the entity--especially creations of that
          entity-- should be required to be reported to the Officer.
          Especially true if the PF is being heavily used for other things,
          like Protos.}


Let the Following Rule be Created with the Title: "Regulations and Membership of
Contests" (it is placed in the Category "Organizations: Contests" if
such Category exists.)


      A Contest's Regulations consist only of Statutes, any one of which is
      referred to as a Regulation. No Player within Jurisdiction of a
      Contest's Regulations is bound by a Regulation or combination of
      Regulations that conflict with the Rules.

      The Regulations can specify the following:

        i) How a Contestmaster is replaced. No person may become 
           Contestmaster without eir consent.  If left unspecified, the 
           Contestmaster cannot change while the Contest exists.
       ii) How the Currencies in the Contest Fund shall be spent.  If 
           this is not specified, they may only be spent when the Rules 
           require it.
      iii) The amount of the Entry Fee for the Contest, in the form of
           units of any specific Currency.
       iv) Additional restrictions on Players to become Contestants,
           and conditions under which Contestants cease to be 
           Contestants.

      A Player becomes a Contestant by notifying the Contestmaster and   
      paying the prescribed Entry Fee to the Contest Fund.  A   
      Contestant may quit a Contest at any time by so notifying the   
      Contestmaster.  A Contestmaster may resign at any time by posting   
      a message to that effect to the Public Forum, at which time e 
      ceases to be Contestmaster.

{Comment: This is similar to the existing Contest Rule, modified
          to fit the new framework, merely split in half.}

======================================================================

Groups.


Amend 766 to read as follows:

      Let there be a Class of Organization known as a Group.

      A Group's Compact consists only of Statutes, and are known
      collectively as its Ordinances, an individual Statute of its Compact
      is known as an Ordinance.  Its Administrator is known as the Group's
      Ordinancekeepor.  A Group has one Treasury, and its Executor is known
      as the Group's Vizier.

      A Group has an associated form of Currency.  The generic name of 
      all Group Currencies is "Coins."  The specific name of a Group's 
      Currency is <name> Coins, where <name> is the Name of the Group.

      Players within the Ordinances' Jurisdiction are known as the
      Group's Membership.  Both the Vizier and the Ordinancekeepor of the
      Group must be Members of the Group.  At all times there must be a
      Vizier and Ordinancekeepor for every Group.


Amend 716 to read as follows:

      To form a Group, there must be three or more Foundors.  In 
      addition to what other Rules require them to provide to the Notary, 
      the Foundors must also specify the following information:

       i) A complete list of the initial Membership of the Group.  No 
          Player on this list may be a Member of any other Group.
      ii) The identity of the initial Ordinancekeepor and Vizier.

      A Group is Public, and as soon as possible after the Notary has 
      received the required information from the third Foundor e shall 
      then post in the Public Forum that the Group has been formed, along 
      with its Name, Membership, and the identity of the Vizier and
      Ordinancekeepor. 


Amend 719 to Read as follows:

      A Player not affiliated with any Group may become a Member of a  
      Group at any time after creation of the Group, subject to the
      following  restrictions:

        i) Membership procedures in the Ordinances are void if they 
           conflict with the Rules.
       ii) No Player shall become a Member of a Group without eir sending 
           a request for Membership to the Vizier of that Group.
      iii) A Player may never be a Member of more than one Group.

      Other Rules, and the Ordinances, may Provide additional 
      Restrictions on Membership.


Amend Rule 718 to read as follows:

      A Player may resign from a Group of which e is a Member, at any 
      time, by sending such a message to the Notary and the Group's 
      Vizier. This rule takes precedence over all other Rules concerning 
      Groups.


Amend Rule 721 to read as follows:

      No Member of any Group is bound to observe any Ordinance or set of 
      Ordinances that conflict with the Rules.

      The Ordinances of a Group may specify the following:

        i) The Vizier of the Group, so long as the Vizier is a Member of 
           that Group.  If the Ordinances of a Group do not so specify, 
           the Vizier shall be the Player whose Application for that 
           Group was received first by the Notary, if e is still a Member 
           of that Group.
       ii) The Ordinancekeepor of the Group, so long as the 
           Ordinancekeepor is a Member of that Group.  If the Ordinances 
           do not so specify, then the Vizier of that Group shall also be 
           its Ordinancekeepor.
      iii) How the Members of the Group shall determine the manner in 
           which the Group shall cast its Group votes. If the Ordinances 
           do not so specify, the Group is prohibited from casting Group 
           votes. The Group is also prohibited from casting any votes on 
           a Proposal if it was not in existence at the beginning of the 
           Voting Period of that Proposal, or if it has less than three 
           Members. The Group's Vizier is responsible for informing the 
           Assessor of how the Group votes on a Proposal.



========================================================================

Contracts.


Amend Rule 1455 to read as follows:

      Let there be a class of Organization known as a Contract, whose
      Compact can also be referred to as a Contract.

      A Contract consists only of Warranties, which are known as its Terms,
      the Players within its Jurisdiction are known as the Parties to the
      Contract, and the Administrator for all Contracts is the Notary.

      Contracts do not possess Treasuries, nor do they possess Executors.
      
      Contracts have the legal force to impose penalties upon Parties 
      that do not abide by the Terms of the Contract.  Parties that are 
      unwilling or unable to abide by the Terms are said to be in Breach 
      of the Contract.

      A Contract may specify the following:

        i) What actions the parties to the contract are required to     
           perform, or are prohibited from performing, and under what     
           conditions these requirements or prohibitions have force.
       ii) What penalties are imposed upon a party who Breaches the     
           Contract.

      The Foundors of a Contract must be the set of all Parties to the 
      Contract. In addition to what other Rules require them to provide 
      to the Notary, the Foundors must also specify the following 
      information:

       i) The identity of each Party to the Contract, each of whom must 
           be named in the Terms of the Contract itself.

      Providing a unique Name for the Contract is optional, this takes
      precedence over the general requirements for information provided.  If
      no Name is provided, the Notary must provide a unique Name for the
      Contract and provide this Name to all Parties.  Parties can then
      change the Name as provided for in the Contract or in other Rules.

      A Contract is Private, and the Notary shall send a notification to 
      all  the Parties of a Contract As Soon As Possible after it has 
      been legally  entered into.  The Contract shall be in force no 
      sooner than the moment of that notification.  

      A Contract ceases to have force at the moment it is dissolved in 
      accordance with its Terms, or one or more of the Parties of the 
      Contract ceases to  be a Player, or the Contract is breached as 
      described elsewhere.

      When a Contract is changed (including any change in the Parties) a 
      current Party to the Contract must inform the Notary of the change 
      as soon as possible after it occurs.  If a Party is being added to, 
      or removed from, the Contract, the change only has effect if _that_ 
      Party sends the notification.  The Notary shall forward this 
      notification of change to all current Parties  of the Contract As 
      Soon As Possible thereafter.

{Comment: Added the paragraph to deal with names.  (There's, as yet, no set
          way to unambiguously identify individual Contracts.)}


Amend Rule 1456 to read as follows:


      A Contract is Breached if any party to the Contract fails, for any 
      reason, to perform any action required of em by the Contract, or 
      performs, for any reason, any action prohibited of em by the  
      Contract. A Breach is officially determined when the Notary finds a  
      Player in Violation of the Contract's Terms, as described in
      other Rules.

      If a Party cannot fulfill the Terms of the Contract because to do 
      so would  conflict with the Rules, e is required to Breach the 
      Contract and must suffer the penalties for a Breach. (This applies 
      even if other Rules absolve the Party from obeying the Terms.)

      The following shall take place in the event that a party of a   
      Contract breaches that contract:

        i) 20 Marks shall be immediately transferred from the breaching       
           Player to the Bank.
       ii) The breaching Player shall gain 3 Blots.
      iii) 30 Marks shall be divided as evenly as possible and       
           transferred from the breaching Player to each of the other       
           parties of the Contract.

      A Contract may specify additional penalties which are to be   
      imposed in the event of a breach; however, such penalties shall   
      be limited to the transfer of Currencies from the party who 
      breached the Contract to any or all of the other Parties of the 
      Contract.

      The Notary shall be responsible for reporting all Currency and 
      Blot changes which arise as a result of this Rule.

      In the event of a breach, the Notary shall have the authority to   
      order all specifically enumerated Currency transfers required by 
      the Rules pertaining to Contracts and by the Contract which has 
      been Breached. This authority is limited to ordering the transfer 
      of Currencies from the Party in breach to the Bank and/or to other 
      Parties of the Contract.


\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\


----------------------------------------

Rule 766/2 (Mutable, MI=1)
Groups

      A Group is initially formed by a set of Players which has
      registered with the Registrar to form a Group; other Players may
      join later.  Each Group has a Name, a Membership, a Vizier,
      an Ordinancekeepor, a Treasury, an Initial Set of Ordinances,
      and an associated form of Currency, called the <name> Coins,
      where <name> is the Name of the Group.

      1.  The Name may not be the Name of another Group.

      2.  The Membership is a set of Players;  these Players are
      Members of the Group, and all other Players are not.

      3.  Synchronously with the registration of a Group, two
      positions are created known as the <name> Vizier and the <name>
      Ordinancekeepor, where <name> is the Name of the Group. These
      positions are not Offices, and they may only be held by members
      of the Group. These positions may never be vacant while the
      Group remains in existence.

      The Vizier shall inform the Registrar whenever the Membership
      of the Group or the Ordinancekeepor of the Group changes. When
      the Vizier of the Group changes, the new Vizier shall inform
      the Registrar of the change.

      The Ordinancekeepor shall keep an accurate and up to date
      record of the current Ordinances of the Group.

      4.  The Treasury is a repository for Points and Currencies and
      has the same capabilities for holding, trading, and spending
      Points and Currencies as does a Player.

      5.  The Ordinances are a description of the operation of the
      Group.

----------------------------------------

Rule 1446/4 (Mutable, MI=1)
Contests

      A contest is a subgame of Agora Nomic, having its own Name,
      Entry Fee, Regulations, Contestmaster, and Contest Fund.

      It is created when a Player posts to the Public Forum an
      announcement of the contest, including the Name and Regulations.
      Participants in the subgame are called Contestants of that
      contest.  The player making the post becomes the Contestmaster.

      The Contestmaster for a given Contest is a Player who has
      responsibility for administering the subgame.  He reports all
      currency transfers taking place under the Regulations, is the
      Executor of the Contest Fund, and maintains the Regulations.

      The Contest Fund is a Treasury, as provided for in other Rules.
      The owner of this Treasury is the Contest, and the Executor of
      this Treasury is, at all times, the Contestmaster of the
      Contest.

      The Regulations specify the operation of the Contest.  All
      Contestants, and the Contestmaster, are bound by the Regulations
      except where these conflict with the Rules.  They may also
      specify:
        1. how a Contestmaster is replaced. However, no person may
           become Contestmaster without eir consent;
        2. how the Currencies in the Contest Fund shall be spent, so
           long as this does not conflict with the Rules;
        3. the amount of the Entry Fee for the Contest, in the form of
           units of one or more Currency;
        4. additional restrictions on Players to become Contestants, 
           and conditions under which Contestants cease to be
           Contestants;
        5. how the Regulations may be changed.  If they do not so 
           specify, the Regulations may not be changed. Whenever the 
           Regulations are changed, the Contestmaster must post the 
           new Regulations to the Public Forum, and no such change is
           effective until it is so posted;
        and
        6. how the Contest may be dissolved.

      A Player becomes a Contestant by notifying the Contestmaster and
      paying the prescribed Entry Fee to the Contest Fund.  A
      Contestant may quit a Contest at any time by so notifying the
      Contestmaster, or by so posting to the Public Forum.  A
      Contestmaster may resign at any time by posting a message to
      that effect to the Public Forum, at which time e ceases to be
      Contestmaster.

      A contest is dissolved when there is no Contestmaster and no
      provision for replacing em, or upon unanimous agreement of the
      Contestmaster and all Contestants, or as otherwise provided in
      the rules, or in the Regulations.  When this happens the Contest
      Fund is distributed as provided in the Regulations; if no
      provision is made the Fund is divided equally between the
      Contestants. 

      No Blots shall be assigned by this Rule.

----------------------------------------

Rule 1455/0 (Mutable, MI=1)
Contracts

      A Contract is a Nomic Entity which has the legal force to
      require one or more Players to perform any action, or
      face penalties for Breach of Contract.

      Only Players may be parties to a Contract.

      A Contract must specify the identities of all Players who
      are parties of the Contract.  A Contract may also specify any or
      all of the following:

      * How the Contract may be changed; if this is not specified, the
        Contract may not be changed after it has been enacted.
      * How the Contract may be dissolved; if this is not specified,
        the Contract may only be dissolved as specified in the Rules.
      * How additional parties may be joined to the Contract after it
        has been enacted; if this is not specified, additional parties
        may not be added to the Contract after it has been enacted.
      * How a party to the Contract may be released from the Contract;
        if this is not specified, no party of the Contract may be
        released from the Contract while the Contract continues to
        exist.
      * What actions the parties to the contract are required to
        perform, or are prohibited from performing, and under what
        conditions these requirements or prohibitions have force.
      * What penalties are imposed upon a party who breaches the
        Contract.

      A new Contract is entered into only when the Notary has received
      identical copies of the Contract from every party named in the
      Contract.  The Notary shall send a notification to all parties
      of a contract as soon as possible after it has been legally
      entered into.  The Contract shall be in force no sooner than the
      moment of that notification.  

      A Contract ceases to have force at the moment it is dissolved in
      accordance with its own terms, or one or more of the parties of
      the Contract ceases to to be a Player, or the Contract is
      breached as described elsewhere.

      Whenever a Contract is changed in any way (including the
      addition of new parties to, or release of existing parties
      from), some party of the Contract must notify the Notary of the
      change as soon as possible after it occurs.  In the case of a
      party being added to Contract, the change only has effect if
      that new party sends the notification to the Notary.  The
      Notary shall forward this notification of change to all parties
      (including new parties and former parties, if appropriate) of
      the Contract as soon as possible thereafter.

      No Contract may be interpreted in such a way as to have any
      legal force on a Player who is not a party of the contract, or
      such that it requires a Player to be joined as a Party of the
      Contract.  No term of a Contract may have retroactive effect.

----------------------------------------

Rule 766/3 (Mutable, MI=1)
Groups

      Let there be a Class of Organization known as a Group.

      A Group's Compact consists only of Statutes, and are known
      collectively as its Ordinances, an individual Statute of its Compact
      is known as an Ordinance.  Its Administrator is known as the Group's
      Ordinancekeepor.  A Group has one Treasury, and its Executor is known
      as the Group's Vizier.

      A Group has an associated form of Currency.  The generic name of 
      all Group Currencies is "Coins."  The specific name of a Group's 
      Currency is <name> Coins, where <name> is the Name of the Group.

      Players within the Ordinances' Jurisdiction are known as the
      Group's Membership.  Both the Vizier and the Ordinancekeepor of the
      Group must be Members of the Group.  At all times there must be a
      Vizier and Ordinancekeepor for every Group.

----------------------------------------

Rule 1446/5 (Mutable, MI=1)
Contests

      Let there be a Class of Organization known as a Contest, also known as
      a subgame of Agora Nomic.

      A Contest's Compact is known as its Regulations, its Administrator is
      known as the Contestmaster, it has one Treasury known as the Contest
      Fund, and its Executor is the Contestmaster.

      Players, other than the Contestmaster, within the Regulation's
      Jurisdiction are known as its Contestants.  The Contestmaster is
      always within the Regulations' Jurisdiction.

      The Foundor of a Contest is its initial Contestmaster.  A 
      Contest is Public, and the Notary must publish the initial Contest 
      Name and Regulations in the Public Forum As Soon As Possible after 
      e receives them from the Contestmaster.

----------------------------------------

Rule 1455/1 (Mutable, MI=1)
Contracts

      Let there be a class of Organization known as a Contract, whose
      Compact can also be referred to as a Contract.

      A Contract consists only of Warranties, which are known as its Terms,
      the Players within its Jurisdiction are known as the Parties to the
      Contract, and the Administrator for all Contracts is the Notary.

      Contracts do not possess Treasuries, nor do they possess Executors.
      
      Contracts have the legal force to impose penalties upon Parties 
      that do not abide by the Terms of the Contract.  Parties that are 
      unwilling or unable to abide by the Terms are said to be in Breach 
      of the Contract.

      A Contract may specify the following:

        i) What actions the parties to the contract are required to     
           perform, or are prohibited from performing, and under what     
           conditions these requirements or prohibitions have force.
       ii) What penalties are imposed upon a party who Breaches the     
           Contract.

      The Foundors of a Contract must be the set of all Parties to the 
      Contract. In addition to what other Rules require them to provide 
      to the Notary, the Foundors must also specify the following 
      information:

       i) The identity of each Party to the Contract, each of whom must 
           be named in the Terms of the Contract itself.

      Providing a unique Name for the Contract is optional, this takes
      precedence over the general requirements for information provided.  If
      no Name is provided, the Notary must provide a unique Name for the
      Contract and provide this Name to all Parties.  Parties can then
      change the Name as provided for in the Contract or in other Rules.

      A Contract is Private, and the Notary shall send a notification to 
      all  the Parties of a Contract As Soon As Possible after it has 
      been legally  entered into.  The Contract shall be in force no 
      sooner than the moment of that notification.  

      A Contract ceases to have force at the moment it is dissolved in 
      accordance with its Terms, or one or more of the Parties of the 
      Contract ceases to  be a Player, or the Contract is breached as 
      described elsewhere.

      When a Contract is changed (including any change in the Parties) a 
      current Party to the Contract must inform the Notary of the change 
      as soon as possible after it occurs.  If a Party is being added to, 
      or removed from, the Contract, the change only has effect if _that_ 
      Party sends the notification.  The Notary shall forward this 
      notification of change to all current Parties  of the Contract As 
      Soon As Possible thereafter.

----------------------------------------

Rule 1533/0 (Mutable, MI=1)
Creation of Organizations, and Their Compacts

      Organizations (and, simultaneously, their initial Compacts) are
      created in the following manner:

      A set of Players, known as the Foundors, sends a message to the 
      Notary containing the following information:

         i) The Class of the created Organization.
        ii) The Unique Name of the particular Organization being created.
       iii) The inital Compact for the proposed Orginization.
        iv) Any information required by Rules governing that specific
            Class of Organization.

      The Organization is created and is in force once the Notary
      receives the above information from all required Foundors.

      The set of required Foundors is specified within the Rules defining
      the particular Class of Organization, but they must be from within
      the Jurisdiction of the new Organization's Compact. Additional
      restrictions on the set of Foundors can be made by those Rules.

      This Rule defers when other Rules specifically claim precedence over
      its requirements. Otherwise, these requirements take precedence.

----------------------------------------

Rule 1011/0 (Semimutable, MI=2)
Game Entities May Not Be Arbitrarily Changed

      Any Entity which is created by the Nomic Rules, and which exists
      only within the context of Agora Nomic (such as Points, Votes,
      Currencies and any Official Records) may *not* be changed by any
      action other than those specified by the Rules.

      No two Nomic Entities (including Players) shall have the same
      name or nickname.

----------------------------------------
CFJ 803
    <incorporated by reference>

    [I think that CFJ's should not reproduce the text of other CFJ's.
     When I was CotC, it tended to clog the machinery of justice.  :-) ]

Regards,
- elJefe