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From: Andre Engels <csg419@wing.rug.nl>
Subject: OFF: CFJ 828 Judgement: FALSE
To: nomic-official@teleport.com
Date: Wed, 22 Nov 95 17:28:09 MET
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Status: RO

======================================================================
			JUDGEMENT CFJ 828
	  The Rules generally should be interpreted such that
	  the Mintor of the Group Coins of any given Group is
	  the Mint, and that all Group Coins existing just prior
	  to the adoption of Proposal 1760 still existed just
	  after the adoption of Proposal 1760.
======================================================================
Judge:		Coco (defaulted)
		elJefe
Judgement:	FALSE

Eligible:	Andre, Chuck, Dave Bowen, elJefe, Kelly, KoJen, 
		Michael, Morendil, Oerjan, Pascal, Saltwater, Steve, 
		Swann, Vanyel, Vlad, Wes, Zefram

Not Eligible:	
Caller:		favor
Barred:		
On Hold:	
1005:		
Defaulted:	Coco

Effects:	Coco gains 3 Blots for defaulting
		Coco is not eligible to be a Judge until e requests
		  the CotC to be eligible again.
		elJefe gains 5 Points for speedy Judgement

======================================================================

History:

  Called by favor, 8 Nov 1995, 17:12 EST
  Assigned to Coco, 9 Nov 1995, 9:28 MET
  Defaulted by Coco, 16 Nov 1995, 9:28 MET
  Ineffective Judgement of FALSE from Coco, 17 Nov 1995, 10:59 -0600 (CST)
  Assigned to elJefe, 21 Nov 1995, 11:56 MET
  Judged FALSE by elJefe, 22 Nov 1995, 11:13 -0500

======================================================================

Arguments:

  The new Organization Rules are a bit wavy on Group Coins.
  766 clearly causes such things to exist, but it does not
  explicitly say what the Mintor is.  Neither it nor any
  other Rule seems to "specifically permit" a Group "to
  become the Mintor of a Currency", so by 1474 the Mintor
  of a Group's Coins cannot be the Group itself.  By 1467,
  if the Mintor of a Currency is otherwise undefined, it's
  the Mint, so the Mint is apparently the Mintor of Group
  Coins.

  Now on continuity: the Judgements in CFJs 815 and 816
  teach that when the Rules governing a type of entity change,
  and some plausible changes to the existing entities of
  that type will bring them into conformance with the Rules,
  those changes occur.  It seems correct, then, to say that
  the existing Group Coins, and the various Currencies of
  which they are instances, continue to exist, and just
  change as needed (their Mintors used to be the Groups,
  for instance, and now it's the Mint).

======================================================================

Decision & Reasoning Judge:

Judgment: FALSE

Reasons and Arguments:

This judgement turns on a precise reading of Rule 1471.  I was strongly 
inclined to say that the old Coins continue to exist but am now unable 
to do so.

Rule 766 explicitly defines Coins to be a Currency.  As there is no 
entity otherwise defined in the Rules to be their Mintor, (the title
of Rule 1474 is not part of the Rule) the second paragraph of Rule 1467 
tells us that their Mintor is the Mint.

Rule 1474/0 clearly said that the Mintor for a Group's Coins was the 
Group. That language was amended away by Proposal 1760, and the Group 
issuing the Coins then ceased to have authority to be a Mintor, that 
authority now going to the Mint.

Rule 1471/0 states that 

   If the Mintor of a Currency ceases to exist, or ceases to have
                                                ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
   the authority to be a Mintor, then all units of that Currency
   ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
   are immediately destroyed, and Currency ceases to exist.


Therefore the old Coins ceased to exist upon adoption of Proposal 1760.

------

It may be objected that the intention of 1471 was not to destroy the
Coins in any transfer of Mintors.  I respond that it was not anyone's
"intention" to change the Group Coin Mintor at all, but it still 
happened.

It may be objected that 1471 ought to be interpreted that when the
Mintor's authority is transferred from one Mintor to another, that the
Mintor has not "ceased to have authority to be a Mintor" since the new 
Mintor still has that authority.

I reject this interpretation as counter-linguistic; it would interpret 
the following statements as tautologically false:  "a Voter ceases to be 
a Player", or "an Officer ceases to fill that Office", or "the Speaker-
elect ceases to be Speaker-elect" or "a Contestant ceases to be a 
Contestant".  Statements like these may be found in Rules 1043, 880, 
402, and 1539.

Even though a conclusion is inconvenient, the temptation of avoiding it 
by misinterpreting the Rules, or language, must be resisted.  The change 
of Mintor means that one entity ceased to have the authority and another 
one began having it.

It may be objected that CFJ 815 should be interpreted as keeping the
Coins in existence.  Judge |favor|'s excellent judgement should be read 
carefully; it states in favored conclusion (b.), 

                    For some Entities and some Rule changes,
      of course, the only change to the Entity that would
      bring it (or the Game state as a whole) into conformance
      with the Rules would be for it to cease to exist. 

In any case, CFJ 815 is an interpretation of Rule 1011.  Rule 1011 only 
has something to say if the Rules do not specify an action.  In this 
case Rule 1471 clearly specifies the action of destroying all Coins and 
the old Currency.

------

Recommendation:

I recommend that legislation be passed curing the defects in Rules 1471
and 766.

FIRST: That Rule 1471 be amended to delete the above language and instead 
say

      If at any time, a Currency ceases to have a valid Mintor, then 
      all units of that Currency are immediately destroyed, and Currency 
      ceases to exist.

This is like the wording for the requirement of having a Recordkeepor.


SECOND: That Rule 766 be amended to add language saying

      The Mintor for each variety of Group Coin is the associated Group.

----------------------------------
- elJefe, Judge


******************************************************************
  Dr. Jeffrey L. Caruso <jlc@triple-i.com>
  Information International



======================================================================

Evidence:

  Rule 766/3
  Rule 1474/0
  Rule 1474/1
  Rule 1467/1
  Judgement of CFJ 815 (included by mention)
  Judgement of CFJ 816 (included by mention)

Evidence added by Judge:
  Rule 1471/0

Evidence added by CotC:
  Ineffective Judgement by Coco

=========================================================================

Rule 766/3 (Mutable, MI=1)
Groups

      Let there be a Class of Organization known as a Group.

      A Group's Compact consists only of Statutes, and are known
      collectively as its Ordinances, an individual Statute of its
      Compact is known as an Ordinance.  Its Administrator is known as
      the Group's Ordinancekeepor.  A Group has one Treasury, and its
      Executor is known as the Group's Vizier.

      A Group has an associated form of Currency.  The generic name of
      all Group Currencies is "Coins."  The specific name of a Group's
      Currency is <name> Coins, where <name> is the Name of the Group.

      Players within the Ordinances' Jurisdiction are known as the
      Group's Membership.  Both the Vizier and the Ordinancekeepor of
      the Group must be Members of the Group.  At all times there must
      be a Vizier and Ordinancekeepor for every Group.

History:
...
Amended(1) by Proposal 1415, Feb. 1 1995
Amended(2) by Proposal 1601, Jun. 19 1995
Amended(3) by Proposal 1760, Oct. 21 1995

----------------------------------------

Rule 1467/1 (Mutable, MI=1)
Definition of a Currency

      A Currency is a type of Nomic Entity.  Only those Nomic Entities
      which are specifically defined by the Rules as being Currencies
      are Currencies.

      A Currency must have a Name (which must not be the name of any
      other Currency), a minimum unit quantity, a Recordkeepor, and a
      Mintor.  The Mintor of a Currency is the Mint if it is not
      otherwise defined.

      The minimum unit quantity (MUQ) of a Currency is the smallest
      amount of that Currency which may be transferred.  All
      transfers, holdings, and calculations involving a given Currency
      shall be rounded off to the nearest multiple of its MUQ.  The
      MUQ of a given Currency is 1, unless another Rule specifies a
      different MUQ for that Currency.

      The Recordkeepor of a Currency is the Player who is required to
      maintain a record of the amount of that Currency held in the
      various Treasuries which exist.  If a Currency ceases to have a
      valid Recordkeepor, the Banker (or, in eir absence, the Speaker)
      shall fulfill that responsibility until a new Recordkeepor is
      selected according to the appropriate procedures.  If no
      procedure exists to select a new recordkeepor, all units of the
      Currency are instead destroyed, and the Currency ceases to
      exist.

      The Mintor of a Currency is the Nomic Entity which is authorized
      to create and destroy units of that Currency.  If the Mintor of
      a Currency ceases to exist, all units of the Currency are
      immediately destroyed, and the Currency also ceases to exist.

      The Banker shall maintain a record of all existing Currencies
      and their MUQs, Recordkeepors, and Mintors.

History:
Created by Proposal 1601, Jun. 19 1995
Amended(1) by Proposal 1685, Sep. 1 1995

----------------------------------------

Rule 1471/0 (Mutable, MI=1)
Creation and Destruction of Currencies

      The Mintor of a Currency may, at any time, create new units of
      that Currency, so long as this creation is permitted by the
      Rules.  These newly-created units of Currency are placed in the
      Treasury of the Mintor.  Units of Currency may not otherwise be
      created except as specifically authorized by the Rules.

      The Mintor of a Currency may, at any time, destroy those units
      of that Currency which it currently possesses in its Treasury,
      so long as this destruction is permitted by the Rules.  Units of
      Currency may not be otherwise destroyed except as specifically
      authorized by the Rules.

      If the Mintor of a Currency ceases to exist, or ceases to have
      the authority to be a Mintor, then all units of that Currency
      are immediately destroyed, and Currency ceases to exist.

      The Mintor of the Currency shall notify the Recordkeepor of the
      Currency as soon as possible after it creates or destroys Units
      of Currency.

      A Mintor must have a Treasury.

History:
Created by Proposal 1601, Jun. 19 1995

----------------------------------------

Rule 1474/0 (Mutable, MI=1)
Coins

      Each Group shall have an associated Currency, the name of which
      shall be formed by appending the word "Coins" to the name of the
      Group.  The MUQ of all Group Coins is 1.  The Recordkeepor for
      each variety of Group Coin is the Vizier of the associated
      Group.  The Mintor for each variety of Group Coin is the
      associated Group.

History:
Created by Proposal 1601, Jun. 19 1995

----------------------------------------

Rule 1474/1 (Mutable, MI=1)
Coins

      An Organization is permitted to be the Mintor of a Currency
      _only_ if that Organization possesses a Treasury, _and_ if the
      Rules defining that Organization's Class specifically permit it
      to become the Mintor of a Currency.

      Each Rule that permits an Organization of a specific Class to be
      a Mintor must define a unique generic name for every type of
      Currency associated with that Class of Organization.

      The name of any Currency associated with a specific Organization
      shall be the Name of the Organization followed by the unique
      generic name defined by the Class of that Organization.

      The Recordkeepor of any Organization's Currency is the Executor
      of the associated Organization.  The MUQ of all such Currencies
      is 1.

History:
Created by Proposal 1601, Jun. 19 1995
Amended(1) by Proposal 1760, Oct. 21 1995

======================================================================

This was the Judgement as issued too late by Coco:

Judgement: FALSE
Reasoning:
Since the previous rules governing Groups specified that each Group was 
the mintor of it's own Coins, the caller's arguement for continuity 
would be contradicted by tranferring the authority to mint Coins from 
Groups to the Mint.